Cesare "Joe" Colombo (1930-1971) studied painting and sculpture in Milan before moving on to architecture at the Polytechnic. From 1951 to 1955, Colombo worked independently as a painter and sculptor. He joined the ‘nuclear painting' movement and later became a founding member of the ‘art concrete' group. In 1958, Colombo abandoned painting to experiment with the latest production processes and newly developed plastics such as fibreglass, ABS, PVC and polyethylene. He opened a design studio in Milan where he produced architectural and design work for companies like Alessi, Boffi, Kartell, Stilnovo, Rosenthal and Zanotta.